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Hypoglossal nerve


These techniques are best suited to cases of facial paralysis less than 2 years in duration. Maria L. Hypoglossal nerve Medically reviewed by Healthline's Medical Network — Written by — Updated on January 20, 2018 The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve and controls movements of the The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth paired cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve can be damaged at the hypoglossal nucleus (nuclear), above the hypoglossal nucleus (supranuclear) or interrupted at the motor axons (infranuclear). The hypoglossal nerve also provides lingual pressure to drive the bolus through the PES/UES. Hypoglossal nerve definition, either one of the twelfth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the tongue. Nerve transfers are indicated when the main trunk of the facial nerve is damaged or unavailable but the distal nerve branches and facial muscles remain viable. Hypoglossal nerve involvement after the individual fibers exit from the medulla is seen with many of the lesions that affect the spinal accessory nerve (see Chapter 64). It only has one catch: it receives hitch-hiking C1 nerve root fibers, which it distributes before reaching the tongue. Hypoglossal Nerve: The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) decreases obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) severity via genioglossus muscle activation and decreased upper airway collapsibility. The authors used a combination of sequences to  Read medical definition of Hypoglossal nerve. The hypoglossal nerve is a motor nerve, and it controls the muscles of the tongue that allow for speech and swallowing. Damage to this nerve produces characteristic clinical manifestations, of which uni -. Damage to the hypoglossal nerve is a relatively uncommon cranial nerve palsy. The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve. It is solely a  15 Mar 2018 Download royalty-free Cranial Nerves - hypoglossal nerve. The clinical examination is the principal method by which hypoglossal nerve palsy can be detected, but imaging studies, either computed tomography or magnetic Tapia syndrome (unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and hypoglossal nerve paralysis), a subset of hypoglossal nerve injury, is attributed to compression injury to intersecting extracranial fibers of both the hypoglossal and vagus nerves at the base of the tongue. The Hypoglossal Nerve emerges like various small rootlets from the front of the medulla which is located at the bottom part of the brainstem in the preolivary sulcus. 2 Hypoglossal definition is - of or relating to the hypoglossal nerves. surgery), infections, vascular malformations, or tumors. The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth and last cranial nerve and supplies the tongue with motor control. Its fibers arise from the cells of the hypoglossal nucleus, which is an upward prolongation of the base of the anterior column of gray substance of the medulla spinalis. A 66-year-old man presented to our hospital with dysphagia and neck pain. Through this case Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a potential cause of dysphagia. Isolated hypoglossal palsy caused by synovial cyst 43. Observe the tongue for any signs of wasting or fasciculations. PDF | On Jul 31, 2016, Chang Jae Kim and others published Cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve) palsy after arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia combined with sono-guided The hypoglossal-vertebral entrapment syndrome 1 occurs as the hypoglossal rootlets converge directly over the distorted vessel with resultant mechanical compression and direct nerve ischemia. It supplies motor function to the tongue and impairment causes problems with speech and eating. See Appendix 3-5. 1 It usually manifests with other cranial nerve deficits. The nerve leaves the medulla oblongata between the olive and the pyramid in the preolivary groove, passes through the premedullary cistern, and exits the skull through the hypoglossal canal. One year prior to his first visit, he had been diagnosed with upper cervical tuberculosis and had undergone posterior C1-2 fixation. Skull base metastasis 46. If the tongue deviates to either side, it suggests a weakening of the muscles on that side. The hypoglossal nerve provides motor innervation for the entire tongue with the exception of the palatoglossal muscle. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a new obstructive sleep apnea treatment that involves surgery to place a device inside the body. 18:05. It originates in the medulla and passes through the hypoglossal canal to supply the muscles  There are two hypoglossal nerve stimulation systems being evaluated: the Inspire II Upper Airway Stimulation device (Inspire Medical) and the aura6000 Sleep  1 Mar 2003 The hypoglossal nerve is a pure motor nerve that innervates both the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue. The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve. Even at rest, with a chonric  Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) produced marked dose-related increases in airflow in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients without arousing them from  24 Oct 2017 Isolated Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy in a Patient with Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A Rare Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome. She developed a tender hepatomegaly of 4–5 cm under the costal margin. Twelfth-nerve palsies have frequently  The hypoglossal nerve is a pure motor nerve. It is purely motor nerve. This study assessed the safety and effectiveness at 6 months post-implantation of a novel device delivering bilateral HNS via a small implanted electrode activated by a unit worn The nerve originates from its motor nucleus, simply called the nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve, or hypoglossal nucleus. The Hypoglossal Nerve supplies motor fibres to all of the muscles of the tongue (ie there is no sensory function ) except the Palatoglossus muscle , which is innervated by the Vagus Nerve ( Cranial Nerve 10 / CN X ) or according to some Jun 21, 2020 · Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation For Select Sleep Apnea Patients - John T. Hypoglossal schwannoma 44. The lesion was on her right-hand side, causing right-sided tongue deviation. Hypoglossal nerve stimulator: What you need to know Learn about hypoglossal nerve stimulators from Christopher Hartnick, MD, chief of the Pediatric Airway, Voice and Swallowing Center at MassGeneral Hospital for Children (MGHfC) and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. [a] It is a nerve with a solely motor function . Cisternal hypoglossal schwannoma with tongue atrophy 42. hypoglossal nerve synonyms, hypoglossal nerve pronunciation, hypoglossal nerve translation, English dictionary definition of hypoglossal Hypoglossal Nerve Clinical Notes and Interpretation If the hypoglossal nerve is paralyzed, the tongue will not protrude out straight but rather will deviate to one side. Diagnostic evaluation confirmed activation of the genioglossus nerve, resulting in genioglossal activation and tongue protrusion, confirmed visually. If that tongue isn’t wagging quite the way it should be, potential treatment strategies may include: exercises to lingual musculature, Masako, Effortful swallow, gargling, super-spraglottic exercises, the IOPI, or NMES in the facial placement. Here is a diagram that shows the pathway and location of the hypoglossal nerve: Here is a diagram that shows the pathway and location of the Reason he won't be able to speak is that the hypoglossal nerve controls the tongue, one on each side. Isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy after fracture of the occipital condyle is rare. The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus in the brain hypoglossal: [ hi″po-glos´al ] sublingual . Medullary glioma 39. Ask the patient to stick their tongue out. The hypoglossal nerve can be sub-divided into five segments; a different type of lesion may exist in any of these segments, therefore the diagnosis of such a lesion is greatly facilitated by the use of both computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. See more. hypoglossal nerve stimulation. 10 It then descends vertically The hypoglossal nerve is cranial nerve number 12. [a] It is a nerve with a solely motor function. Due to the importance of tongue movement to speech and swallowing, the hypoglossal nerve is not cut completely, but is instead partially cut to allow Define hypoglossal nerve. Hypoglossal definition, situated under the tongue. One of those nerves, the hypoglossal nerve, is intimately related to the oral cavity. Learn more, here. New Latin hypoglōssus (in nervus hypoglōssus "hypoglossal nerve," from hypo-hypo-+ -glōssus, borrowed from Greek -glōssos, adjective derivative of glôssa, glôtta "tongue") + -al entry 1 — more at gloss entry 3 The hypoglossal nerve is the motor nerve of the tongue. Our study is the largest case series including12 patients. The hypoglossal nerve provides motor supply to the muscles of the tongue. Background and aim Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) decreases obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) severity via genioglossus muscle activation and decreased   27 Jul 2018 Sir, hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a rare condition affecting the head and neck region. 00XS Hypoglossal Nerve. Hypoglossal nerve stimulator devices function by activating the genioglossus muscle, drawing the back of the tongue forward and improving the patency of the airway. The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII). It passes through the subarachnoid space and penetrates into the dura mater next to the hypoglossal canal (an opening in the occipital bone of the skull). The Inspire stimulator is a surgically implanted device that activates the hypoglossal nerve to tighten the muscles of the tongue and upper airway during sleep, improving airflow and reducing sleep apnea. Hypoglossal nerve. Sacchetti, Researcher,  2 Sep 2019 The hypoglossal nerve is the 12th cranial nerve. Patients with HNP present with a wide range of  22 Nov 2017 Evidence-based recommendations on hypoglossal nerve stimulation for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea in adults. It originates from the lateral medulla of the brain. Stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve contracts the genioglossus muscle causing tongue protrusion and stiffening of the anterior pharyngeal wall, potentially decreasing apneic events. Bilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy due to Brainstem Infarction: A Rare Presentation of Presumed Pyogenic Meningitis The hypoglossal nerve (Figs. It’s a motor nerve. 5';noket. 00XS0ZF Transfer Hypoglossal Nerve to Olfactory Nerve, Open Approach; 00XS0ZG Transfer Hypoglossal Nerve to Optic Nerve, Open Approach What is Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation? Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a surgical procedure for obstructive sleep apnea. 13, 18, 33, 37, 53 The hypoglossal nerve provides motor innervation for the entire tongue with the exception of the palatoglossal muscle. Its name is derived from ancient Greek, ‘hypo‘ meaning under, and ‘glossal‘ meaning tongue. Isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is uncommon with only a few casereports and two case series in literature. The physical examination led to the diagnosis of dysphagia with HNP, and he had severe weight loss. ®It is the policy of health plans affiliated with Centene Corporation that implantable hypoglossal nerve neurostimulation is medically necessary for the treatment of moderate to severe OSA when all of the following criteria are met: The hypoglossal nerve (twelfth cranial nerve, CN XII, latin: nervus hypoglossus) is a motor nerve that supplies general somatic efferent fibers to all intrinsic skeletal muscles of the tongue and to three of the four extrinsic tongue muscles. Despite considerable manipulation, dissection, and retraction, the hypoglossal nerve usually retains its function. Disorders of the 12th cranial nerve (hypoglossal nerve) cause weakness or wasting (atrophy) of the tongue on the affected side. Radiographic examination The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, which controls movements of the tongue. It is a somatomotor nerve that innervates all the intrinsic and all but one of the  2 Apr 2020 General Considerations Selective upper airway stimulation (UAS) using an implanted hypoglossal nerve stimulator has become a widely  R. The evaluation of potential candidates begins in the Center for Sleep Medicine. The tongue's extrinsic muscles help it move in different directions, while the intrinsic muscles help it make movements such as curling, according to the textbook Anatomy and Physiology . One month after implantation, the device is activated by our sleep medicine colleagues in the Neurological Institute. 00XS0Z No Device. What is hypoglossal nerve stimulation ? Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) is a relatively new The cuff electrode for the hypoglossal nerve stimulator (C1778; L8680) was placed distally to these branches on the medial nerve branch to the genioglossus muscle. 00XS0 Open. Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is an uncommon cranial nerve palsy comparing to other commoner cranial nerves such as 3rd, 6th, and 7th cranial nerves [4]. MD. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy exits the medulla oblongata, extends through the skull base, and traverses the suprahyoid neck before ramifying to supply the tongue musculature. Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is most commonly found after a head and neck surgery, trauma, or as an early clinical indication of underlying neoplasm or neurologic disorder. Hypoglossal Nerve. The hypoglossal nerve starts in the brain stem and goes down through the neck and comes up again over the tongue. The hypoglossal nerve arises in the medulla oblongata and leaves the skull through the hypoglossal canal in the occipital bone It then comes into close relationship with the ninth, tenth, and eleventh cranial nerves, the internal carotid artery, and in the internal jugular vein. 4 Oct 2019 The hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) is a motor nerve that controls all of the muscles of the tongue except for one, and is thus critical for  The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve and controls movements of the tongue. Policy/Criteria I. It is rarely injured unless intentionally sacrificed as part of a tumor resection. (cranial nerve. As a result, Dr. It only has one catch: it receives hitch-hiking C1 nerve root  The hypoglossal nerve as the name indicates can be found below the tongue. One year prior to  The hypoglossal nerve plays an important role in speech and swallowing. The hypoglossal nerve provides motor innervation to the extrinsic (hyoglossus, styloglossus, and genioglossus) and intrinsic muscles of the tongue. This article presents three cases of cranial nerve palsy following shoulder surgery with general anesthesia in the beach chair position. Object. The hypoglossal nerve innervates all  The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus. Hypoglossal Nerve Transfers. It involves placing a device within the body which encourages this nerve to activate during the night, pushing your tongue forward and allowing air to flow uninhibited through the throat. Two cases of postoperative hypoglossal and one case of combined hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies (Tapia’s syndrome) were identified. The hypoglossal nerve is the 12th cranial nerve. Aug 08, 2018 · Hypoglossal nerve is the 12th cranial nerve and originates from the medulla oblongata. Structures supplied by the hypoglossal nerve are indicated by solid lines, whereas those supplied by fibers of cervical origin are indicated by dashed lines. Damage to an upper motor neuron may result in fasciculation of the tongue muscle without atrophy; in this case, the tongue will deviate to the side opposite the lesion. hypoglossal nerve - Duration: 8:37. Twelfth-nerve palsies have frequently been reported in association with the following conditions: tumors (metastatic, chordoma, nasopharyngeal mass, lymphoma), head trauma, stroke, hysteria, multiple sclerosis, carotid endarterectomy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and infection. Hypoglossal nerve is a motor nerve which, like the vagus and glossopharyngeal, is involved in the movement of tongue muscles, swallowing and speech. This nerve moves the tongue. Hypoglossal nerve is the 12 th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve helps to move the tongue. 2 Years ago they removed the left side in a RND and now the cancer 'resides' on the nerve on the right side. Possible causes include tumours and penetrating traumatic injuries. The fibers of the hypoglossal nerve arise in the hypoglossal nuclei, which extend through the medulla oblongata in a paramedian location. 8,9 It then exits the skull base from the hypoglossal canal in close association with CN IX, X, and XI and medial to the internal jugular vein and lateral to the internal carotid artery. It is divided into five segments:  The human body has twelve cranial nerves. All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound-guided interscalene nerve block. It then passes laterally across the posterior cranial fossa,  Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve Hypoglossal Nerve (XII) Hypoglossal Nerve (XII): Schema. The hypoglossal nerve is also commonly considered to be the connector that exists or is located between the motor fibers in the body, which gives it an important role in the body. 794, 795) is the motor nerve of the tongue. It is essential for supplying the muscles of the tongue being a somatic motor nerve. Basilar meningitis, due to granulomatous infection or carcinoma, can produce hypoglossal lesions. It then passes laterally across the posterior cranial fossa,  The hypoglossal nerve is the final of the cranial nerves. Download scientific diagram | Surgical implantation of the hypoglossal nerve stimulator. Feb 22, 2012 · Hypoglossal palsy 38. . History and Etymology for hypoglossal. Apr 07, 2016 · Hypoglossal Nerve (under the jaw)—Using your fingers on a strong spear-hand, roll your fingers past the lower jaw and then angle the pressure upward toward the opposite side of the head. Arising from the  The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) is exclusively a motor nerve carrying general somatic efferent fibers (GSE). Azizzadeh likes to utilize the hypoglossal nerve or trigeminal nerve as the neural supply for the gracilis muscle transplant (see gracilis muscle section). stock vector . XII) palsy is uncommon. The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus and emerges from the medulla oblongata in the  Hypoglossal nerve definition: the twelfth cranial nerve , which supplies the muscles of the tongue | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. Diseases of the hypoglossal nerve Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy (IHNP) although a rare condition, has been previously reported. What is a hypoglossal nerve stimulator? ANSWER About the size of a pacemaker, doctors put the device inside your chest through minor surgery. Hypoglossal nerve: The twelfth cranial nerve, which supplies the muscles of the tongue. Jul 12, 2018 · Several options include surgical management through uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, oral appliances, or upper airway stimulation, most commonly involving hypoglossal nerve stimulation. Indeed, HN partly derives its blood supply from vertebral branches. Hypoglossal nerve disorders may be caused by tumors, strokes, infections, injuries, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The nerve has a purely somatic motor function, innervating all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue (except the palatoglossus, innervated by vagus nerve). Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is proposed as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea in individuals who are unable to use CPAP. Even at rest, with a chonric lesion half of the tongue will be wasted, and the other half will point towards the normal side (away from the lesion) due to the presence of resting tone in those muscles; this was demonstrated in Question 21. It usually occurs after major trauma, such as high-speed deceleration injuries following road traffic HYPOGLOSSAL nerve palsy is a rare occurrence usually associated with other cranial nerve palsies and long tract signs. Each of the hypoglossal nerves comprises 10–12 rootlets. It supplies motor function to the tongue and impairment causes problems with speech and  The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery considers upper airway stimulation (UAS) via the hypoglossal nerve for the treatment of adult  The hypoglossal nerve is primarily motor in function (Parent, 1996). Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia with hypoglossal nerve palsy 40. Hypoglossal nerve palsy by Dr J Derrick, Homerton University Hospital, 2019. The hypoglossal nerve, cranial nerve (CN) XII, originates from the hypoglossal nucleus, which is a 2-cm long cell column at the ventral paramedian region of the medulla oblongata, beneath the hypoglossal trigone in the floor of the fourth ventricle. What is hypoglossal nerve palsy? The 12th cranial nerve makes it possible to move the tongue muscles. Cautery is used to dissect vertically in the midline through fat down to   The hypoglossal nerve is found beneath the tongue as the word roots imply. 2 from the first paper of 2014. K. Despite the nerves important function, damage to the nerve does not usually present  Other articles where Hypoglossal nerve is discussed: human nervous system: Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII or 12): The hypoglossal nerve innervates certain  HYPOGLOSSAL nerve palsy is a rare occurrence usually associated with other cranial nerve palsies and long tract signs. The hypoglossal nerve is a remarkably resilient nerve important for speech and swallowing. It provides motor control to the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles thus being essential for normal tongue  4 Nov 2019 Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a novel strategy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A literature review revealed that in most cases, IHNP indicates the presence of an intracranial or The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is  The hypoglossal nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem. Dec 04, 2018 · BilatEral Hypoglossal Nerve StimulaTion for TreatmEnt of ObstRuctive SLEEP Apnoea With and Without Complete Concentric Collapse (BETTER SLEEP) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. It innervates all intrinsic and almost all extrinsic  23 May 2020 The Hypoglossal Nerve is the 12th Cranial Nerve (Cranial Nerve XII). 23 Sep 2015 The hypoglossal nerve is usually tested by asking the patient to stick out their tongue, and move it from side to side. When it is damaged, or functions improperly, the result is loss of tongue muscle function. May 26, 2018 · The Hypoglossal Nerve. 1 Its fibers arise from the cells of the hypoglossal nucleus, which is an upward prolongation of the base of the anterior column of gray substance of the medulla spinalis. With a small remote, you turn it on before you go to Hypoglossal nerve definition is - either of the 12th and final pair of cranial nerves which are motor nerves arising from the medulla oblongata and supplying muscles of the tongue in higher vertebrates —called also hypoglossal. Oct 07, 2019 · Hypoglossal Nerve Disorders. hypoglossal nerve the twelfth cranial nerve ; its modality is purely motor, serving the intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other muscles beneath the tongue. The hypoglossal nerve stimulation therapy program at Mayo Clinic's campus in Minnesota is a joint effort of the Center for Sleep Medicine and Otorhinolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery. Tumors can compress the nerve in the hypoglossal canal and in the jugular foramen. Its anatomy allows for easy surgical  Hypoglossal nerve dysfunction in patients with acute stroke and sleep disordered breathing: a serotoninergic hypothesis. Parker, MD - Duration: 18:05. Hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer In patients with long-term facial paralysis who are older than 55, cross-facial nerve grafts have not produced great results. It is a nerve with a solely motor function. The thin hypoglossal nerve can be very difficult to distinguish on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Oct 05, 2018 · The hypoglossal nerve stimulator program is a team effort at Cleveland Clinic. The hypoglossal nerve (Figs. Meningioma 41. It provides motor control for the muscles of the tongue and helps with important voluntary and involuntary functions like swallowing. It is mainly an efferent nerve for the tongue musculature. If the symptoms are accompanied by acute pain, a possible cause may be dissection of the internal carotid artery. Nerve damage may occur in the pharyngolaryngeal region during general anesthesia. The nerve  This nerve controls all tongue movements. on 12/27/2018. Seattle Science Foundation 134 views. Such damage causes paralysis, fasciculations (as noted by a scalloped appearance of the tongue), and eventual atrophy of the tongue muscles. The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus in the brain stem as a number of small rootlets, passes The hypoglossal nerve is usually tested by asking the patient to stick out their tongue, and move it from side to side. In order to get clear margins they'll have to remove the nerve and for assurance they want to remove everything else. : Its fibers arise from the cells of the hypoglossal nucleus, which is an upward prolongation of the base of the anterior column of gray substance of the medulla spinalis. The hypoglossal nerve originates from the hypoglossal nuclei in the medulla at the inferior aspect of the fourth ventricle. Origin: Its nucleus is located in the medulla in the lower part of the floor of the fourth ventricle. In order to preserve this important function, the hypoglossal nerve can be partial cut on its side and connected to the facial nerve (see Figure 1). Hypoglossal nerve palsy is an uncommon neurological deficit characterized by unilateral weakness and/or atrophy of the tongue that may arise due to trauma, iatrogenic causes (eg. Nuclear or infranuclear lesions produce paralysis, atrophy, and fasciculations of the tongue on the involved side. Himanshu  The hypoglossal nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus in the medulla oblongata of the brain. Overview of the hypoglossal nerve The hypoglossal nucleus is a thin and long nucleus lies in the ventral portion of the medulla, near the midline. What Is the Hypoglossal Nerve? The throat is somewhat similar to a tube (for breathing, speaking, and swallowing) that is surrounded by muscles. Candidates for Inspire Placement . Occipital condylar fracture 45. The most frequently injured nerves are the hypoglossal, lingual and  Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a potential cause of dysphagia. Ansa hypoglossi and muscles supplied by the hypoglossal nerve. This is a safer technique for the officer than the infraorbital pressure point because it is further from the resister's mouth. hypoglossal nerve

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